Send to

Choose Destination
Ann Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Jul-Dec;8(2):355-357. doi: 10.4103/ams.ams_83_18.

Mandibular Osteomyelitis Associated with Candida Albicans in Marijuana and Heroin Abusers.

Author information

Broward Health Medical Center, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.


Osteomyelitis of the mandible is most commonly caused by bacterial infections and is rarely linked to fungal infections. In 2003, Friedman et al. studied the relationship of multiple drugs including marijuana, opioids, nicotine, and alcohol and its effect on the immune system. It is important to consider potential risks and complications of patients who are immunocompromised and present a history of substance abuse. These complications include infections and osteomyelitis which can be associated with multiple microorganisms; some of the most common microorganisms isolated in mandibular osteomyelitis include Streptococcus, Eikenella, and Candida. Candida albicans is commonly found in the skin and mucosa of healthy individuals; however, it has been proven to cause disease in individuals who are immunocompromised. Two cases of mandibular osteomyelitis after routine dental extractions and a history of drug abuse, including heroin and marijuana, are presented in this case series. These specific infections were resistant to multiple antibiotic therapy and grew C. albicans species in cultures collected. These cases were treated with irrigation and debridement or mandibular resection in combination with antimicrobial treatment and fluconazole with complete resolution. Although osteomyelitis is most commonly caused by bacterial infections, special attention must be given to patients with medical histories of immunosuppression and intravenous drug use. Patients who do not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics might benefit from bacterial and fungal cultures and sensitivity. Antifungal treatment with an antifungal agent, such as oral fluconazole, is indicated if fungal organisms are yielded in the culture.


Candida; fungus; osteomyelitis

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center