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Saudi J Anaesth. 2019 Jan-Mar;13(1):52-59. doi: 10.4103/sja.SJA_415_18.

Comparative study of mid-thoracic spinal versus epidural anesthesia for open nephrectomy in patients with obstructive/restrictive lung disease: A randomized controlled study.

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Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.



The aim of this randomized controlled study is to compare the safety and efficacy of thoracic spinal versus thoracic epidural anesthesia for open nephrectomy in patients with obstructive/restrictive lung disease.


Sixty patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive/restrictive lung disease undergoing open nephrectomy were randomized into two groups, 30 patients each. The thoracic spinal group (TSA) group received ultrasound guided mid-thoracic spinal anesthesia, and the thoracic epidural group (TEA) group received thoracic epidural anesthesia. All blocks were performed at the T7-T8. Hemodynamics, visual analogue scale score, sensory and motor block profile as well as any adverse events, and patient satisfaction were all reported.


Both blocks were successfully performed and were effective for surgery in all patients, with the exception of only one patient in TSA group who needed to receive general anesthesia even after IV midazolam because of extreme anxiety and was excluded from the study analysis. The sensory block ranges were quiet close, with T2-T5 for the TSA group and T3-T6 for the TEA group as the upper level and L3-L5 as the same lower level. The values for the onset time and the duration of sensory and motor blocks were lower in TSA group. There were no statistically significant differences existed in intraoperative VAS, and hemodynamics between the two groups. Postoperative adverse effects were negligible and insignificant, with no case reporting any neurological sequel.


Ultrasound guided thoracic spinal anesthesia can be performed safely and effectively for open nephrectomy in patients with obstructive/restrictive lung disease with the potential for an early ambulation and great patient satisfaction.


Epidural; lung disease; mid-thoracic; nephrectomy; spinal

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