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Indian J Urol. 2019 Jan-Mar;35(1):54-60. doi: 10.4103/iju.IJU_230_18.

Are we ready for urological subspecialty-based practice in India? The resident's perspective.

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Department of Urooncology, Max Institute of Cancer Care, New Delhi, India.
Department of Urology, MPUH, Nadiad, India.



In the current era, every broad specialty has diversified into many subspecialties including urology, which is one of the most dynamic fields. The concept of early sub-specialization relies on excelling in a niche area of interest. While this concept is appealing to the most, no formal evaluation of our residency programs has ever been conducted with regard to their adequacy in terms of equipping residents to make informed sub-specialization choices. We performed a survey amongst urological residents, in an attempt to gather information on some unanswered questions related to our residency training programs and the concept of sub-specialization.


Using the Delphi principles, we conducted a survey consisting of 46 questions, amongst the Indian Urological residents (n = 85), to assess the overall exposure to various subspecialties during their residency program, and the inclination of residents towards them.


Residents get a fair exposure to endourology, uro-oncology, female urology and reconstructive urology during their residency. However, the same did not hold true for pediatric urology, andrology and laparoscopic/robotic surgery. 90% of the residents expressed an inclination towards academic practice, while 76.5% were interested in sub-specialization. 60% of the residents felt that they had obtained adequate exposure during residency to make a decision in this regard. Less than 20% were inclined towards female urology, andrology or pediatric urology as a career option.


There is a growing interest and inclination amongst Indian Urological residents to attain expertise in sub-specialised fields. However, our current residency programs need consolidated efforts to ensure an adequate exposure to all the aspects of Urology, especially in the subspecialties of pediatric urology, andrology and minimally invasive urology. Training should be optimized to a level, which enables the residents to take a well informed decision regarding their choice of subspecialised career path.

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