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Blood. 2019 Apr 25;133(17):1909-1918. doi: 10.1182/blood-2018-11-886309. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Exploring the "minimal" structure of a functional ADAMTS13 by mutagenesis and small-angle X-ray scattering.

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Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.
Laboratory for Thrombosis Research, Interdisciplinary Research Facility Life Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Campus Kulak Kortrijk, Kortrijk, Belgium.
Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD; and.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.


Human ADAMTS13 is a multidomain protein with metalloprotease (M), disintegrin-like (D), thrombospondin-1 (T), Cys-rich (C), and spacer (S) domains, followed by 7 additional T domains and 2 CUB (complement components C1r and C1s, sea urchin protein Uegf, and bone morphogenetic protein-1) domains. ADAMTS13 inhibits the growth of von Willebrand factor (VWF)-platelet aggregates by cleaving the cryptic Tyr1605-Met1606 bond in the VWF A2 domain. ADAMTS13 is regulated by substrate-induced allosteric activation; without shear stress, the distal T8-CUB domains markedly inhibit VWF cleavage, and binding of VWF domain D4 or selected monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to distal ADAMTS13 domains relieves this autoinhibition. By small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), ADAMTS13 adopts a hairpin-like conformation with distal T7-CUB domains close to the proximal MDTCS domains and a hinge point between T4 and T5. The hairpin projects like a handle away from the core MDTCS and T7-CUB complex and contains distal T domains that are dispensable for allosteric regulation. Truncated constructs that lack the T8-CUB domains are not autoinhibited and cannot be activated by VWF D4 but retain the hairpin fold. Allosteric activation by VWF D4 requires T7, T8, and the 58-amino acid residue linker between T8 and CUB1. Deletion of T3 to T6 produced the smallest construct (delT3-6) examined that could be activated by MAbs and VWF D4. Columba livia (pigeon) ADAMTS13 (pADAMTS13) resembles human delT3-6, retains normal activation by VWF D4, and has a SAXS envelope consistent with amputation of the hairpin containing the dispensable T domains of human ADAMTS13. Our findings suggest that human delT3-6 and pADAMTS13 approach a "minimal" structure for allosterically regulated ADAMTS13.

[Available on 2020-04-25]

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