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Parasit Vectors. 2019 Jan 28;12(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3299-9.

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Dirofilaria immitis in Canadian dogs, 2008 to 2015: a repeat cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, C1A 4P3, Canada. mevason@upei.ca.
2
University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada. mevason@upei.ca.
3
University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, C1A 4P3, Canada.
4
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA.
5
University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.
6
IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., 1 IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine, 04092, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vector-borne pathogens are emerging concerns in multiple regions of Canada. Determining regional prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens and documenting change will improve clinician awareness, enable targeted prevention, enhance diagnosis and ideally reduce the risk of disease. Study objectives were to: (i) estimate the prevalence of positive canine vector-borne test results from samples submitted in Canada; (ii) assess change in prevalence over time, from baseline (2008) to 2015; and (iii) estimate the prevalence of pathogen co-infections.

METHODS:

This repeat cross-sectional study evaluated 753,468 test results for D. immitis antigen and B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis/ewingii/muris serology, and 753,208 test results for Anaplasma phagocytophilum/platys serology using the SNAP® 4Dx®Test and SNAP 4Dx® Plus Test.

RESULTS:

Based on all submitted samples from Canada (2008-2015), the period seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and D. immitis antigen were 2.0%, 0.5%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. Over the 7 years (2008 compared to 2015) we observed a significant increase in seroprevalence for B. burgdorferi (144.4%) and Ehrlichia spp. (150%). Co-infections (positive for two or more pathogens on a single 4 pathogen test kit) were estimated at 5.4% (1162/21,612) of total positive tests.

CONCLUSIONS:

The temporal rise and geographical differences in prevalence detected for these pathogens (notably B. burgdorferi) are consistent with anecdotal information on canine illness related to tick-borne pathogen exposure in multiple regions of Canada, particularly canine Lyme disease.

KEYWORDS:

Co-infection; Heartworm; Lyme; Tick-borne; Vector-borne

PMID:
30691522
PMCID:
PMC6350403
DOI:
10.1186/s13071-019-3299-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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