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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 Jan 28. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glz003. [Epub ahead of print]

Improving Dietary Protein Quality Reduces the Negative Effects of Physical Inactivity on Body Composition and Muscle Function.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.
2
Center for Recovery, Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.
3
School of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman's University, Houston.
4
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.

Abstract

Background:

Brief periods of physical inactivity can compromise muscle health. Increasing dietary protein intake is potentially beneficial but complicated by difficulties reconciling anabolic potential with a realistic food volume and energy intake. We sought to determine whether increasing dietary protein quality could reduce the negative effects of physical inactivity.

Methods:

Twenty healthy, older men and women completed 7 days of bed rest followed by 5 days of rehabilitation. Volunteers consumed a mixed macronutrient diet (MIXED: N = 10; 68 ± 2 years; 1,722 ± 29 kcal/day; 0.97 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day) or an isoenergetic, whey-augmented, higher protein quality diet (WHEY: N = 10; 69 ± 1 years; 1,706 ± 23 kcal/day; 0.90 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day). Outcomes included body composition, blood glucose, insulin, and a battery of physical function tests.

Results:

During bed rest, both groups experienced a 20% reduction in knee extension peak torque (p < .05). The WHEY diet partially protected leg lean mass (-1,035 vs. -680 ± 138 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .08) and contributed to a greater loss of body fat (-90 vs. -233 ± 152 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p < .05). Following rehabilitation, knee extension peak torque in the WHEY group fully recovered (-10.0 vs. 2.2 ± 4.1 Nm, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .05). Blood glucose, insulin, aerobic capacity, and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) changes were similar in both dietary conditions (p > .05).

Conclusions:

Improving protein quality without increasing total energy intake has the potential to partially counter some of the negative effects of bed rest in older adults.

PMID:
30689727
DOI:
10.1093/gerona/glz003

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