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ACS Chem Neurosci. 2019 May 15;10(5):2160-2175. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00651. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

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Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics, Brain and Mind Centre , The University of Sydney , Sydney , NSW 2050 , Australia.
Faculty of Science and School of Chemistry , The University of Sydney , Sydney , NSW 2006 , Australia.
School of Medical Science and Discipline of Pharmacology , The University of Sydney , Sydney , NSW 2006 , Australia.
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Macquarie University , Macquarie Park , NSW 2109 , Australia.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology , University of Otago , Dunedin 9016 , New Zealand.
Faculty of Science and School of Psychology , The University of Sydney , Sydney , NSW 2006 , Australia.


Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa) is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, with an estimated 192 million users globally. The main psychoactive component of cannabis is (-)- trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a compound with a diverse range of pharmacological actions. The unique and distinctive intoxication caused by Δ9-THC primarily reflects partial agonist action at central cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors. Δ9-THC is an approved therapeutic treatment for a range of conditions, including chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and multiple sclerosis, and is being investigated in indications such as anorexia nervosa, agitation in dementia, and Tourette's syndrome. It is available as a regulated pharmaceutical in products such as Marinol, Sativex, and Namisol as well as in an ever-increasing range of unregistered medicinal and recreational cannabis products. While cannabis is an ancient medicament, contemporary use is embroiled in legal, scientific, and social controversy, much of which relates to the potential hazards and benefits of Δ9-THC itself. Robust contemporary debate surrounds the therapeutic value of Δ9-THC in different diseases, its capacity to produce psychosis and cognitive impairment, and the addictive and "gateway" potential of the drug. This review will provide a profile of the chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of Δ9-THC as well as the historical and societal import of this unique, distinctive, and ubiquitous psychoactive substance.


cannabidiol; cannabinoid; cannabis; chemistry; pharmacology; tetrahydrocannabinol

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