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Neurol India. 2019 Jan-Feb;67(Supplement):S62-S70. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.250709.

Clinical, electrophysiological and laboratory parameters, and outcome in patients with biopsy proven systemic and nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
2
Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
3
Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
4
Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Aim:

To describe the clinical and laboratory findings of patients with biopsy proven vasculitic neuropathy.

Introduction:

Peripheral neuropathies form one of the most common disorders of the nervous system. However, more than 50% of them are labelled as 'idiopathic' and, therefore, treatment options become less. In this study, we tried to evaluate the phenotypic as well as laboratory characteristics and outcome of patients with biopsy proven vasculitic neuropathy.

Patients and Methods:

Review of biopsy proven definite or probable vasculitic neuropathy was done.

Results:

The cohort consisted of 67 subjects. There were 21 patients of systemic vasculitis (SVS) and 46 of non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN). The nerve biopsy revealed definite vasculitis in 37 and probable vasculitis in 30 patients. The symptoms at onset were paraesthesia (68.7%), and paraesthesia and weakness (28.4%). Diffuse polyneuropathy occurred in 70.1% patients. The course was chronic in the majority (80.59%) of patients. Electrophysiology revealed mononeuritis multiplex in 32.84%, and polyneuropathy in 67.16% of patients. Pure sensory neuropathy was present in 16.42%. Among the patients who had undergone bilateral nerve conduction studies, the majority (71.05%) of patients had an asymmetric neuropathy. An elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was observed in 80.59% (mean 71.57 ± 30.81 mm/1hr [in SVS] and 35.24 ± 21.62mm/1 hr in NSVN) of patients. The treatment included steroids, other immunomodulators, and symptomatic medications. The mean follow up was 10.98 ± 9.58 months. The outcome was good in 73.46% (43.8% with SVS and 87.88% with NSVN) patients, with those having a NSVN having a significantly better outcome.

Conclusion:

Vasculitis is a potentially treatable cause of peripheral neuropathy. The clinical features, electrophysiology, laboratory results and nerve biopsy may help in the diagnosis and categorization of patients into non-systemic and systemic vasculitic neuropathies. The long-term outcome is better in patients with NSVN compared to those with systemic vasculitis.

KEYWORDS:

Electrophysiological evaluation; nerve biopsy; neuropathy; systemic vasculitis; vasculitis

PMID:
30688236
DOI:
10.4103/0028-3886.250709
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