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Adv Mater. 2019 Mar;31(12):e1806727. doi: 10.1002/adma.201806727. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Phytochrome-Based Extracellular Matrix with Reversibly Tunable Mechanical Properties.

Author information

1
Signalling Research Centres BIOSS and CIBSS, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
2
Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
3
Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine (SGBM), University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
4
Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, 79108, Freiburg, Germany.
5
Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, FMF Freiburg Materials Research Center, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
6
Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technology (FIT), University of Freiburg, 79110, Freiburg, Germany.
7
Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
8
G.E.R.N. Tissue Replacement, Regeneration and Neogenesis, Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79085, Freiburg, Germany.
9
Centre for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
10
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
11
Institute of Synthetic Biology and CEPLAS, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40204, Düsseldorf, Germany.
12
Cluster of Excellence Living, Adaptive and Energy-Autonomous Materials Systems (livMatS), University of Freiburg, 79110, Freiburg, Germany.
13
CIBSS - Centre for Integrative Biological Signalling Studies, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

Abstract

Interrogation and control of cellular fate and function using optogenetics is providing revolutionary insights into biology. Optogenetic control of cells is achieved by coupling genetically encoded photoreceptors to cellular effectors and enables unprecedented spatiotemporal control of signaling processes. Here, a fast and reversibly switchable photoreceptor is used to tune the mechanical properties of polymer materials in a fully reversible, wavelength-specific, and dose- and space-controlled manner. By integrating engineered cyanobacterial phytochrome 1 into a poly(ethylene glycol) matrix, hydrogel materials responsive to light in the cell-compatible red/far-red spectrum are synthesized. These materials are applied to study in human mesenchymal stem cells how different mechanosignaling pathways respond to changing mechanical environments and to control the migration of primary immune cells in 3D. This optogenetics-inspired matrix allows fundamental questions of how cells react to dynamic mechanical environments to be addressed. Further, remote control of such matrices can create new opportunities for tissue engineering or provide a basis for optically stimulated drug depots.

KEYWORDS:

biomaterials; cell migration; extracellular matrix; mechanosignaling; optogenetics; phytochromes

PMID:
30687975
DOI:
10.1002/adma.201806727

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