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J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 Oct;69(5). doi: 10.26402/jpp.2018.5.10. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Host nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 defense system determines the outcome of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

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Jeonju University, College of Biotechnology and Functional Foods, Jeonju, Korea.
CHA Cancer Prevention Research Center, CHA Bio Complex, Pangyo, Korea.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea.
Department of Gastroenterology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
CHA Cancer Prevention Research Center, CHA Bio Complex, Pangyo, Korea.
Digestive Disease Center, CHA University Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Korea.


Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water led to significant bout of colitis simulating ulcerative colitis of human. However, colitis usually developed 5 - 7 days after DSS administration. Therefore, we hypothesized host defense system might protect colitis up to 5 days of DSS administration. 2.5% DSS-induced colitis were administered to C57BL/6 mice and sequential measurements of pathology, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and keap1 were done at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 120, and 168 hour of DSS administration, respectively. DSS-induced colitis was repeated in either COX-2-/- or Nrf2-/- mice. On serial pathological analysis, significant colitis was noted after 120 h of DSS administration, during which both activations of COX-2/NF-κB and HO-1/Nrf2 were noted. Nrf2 activations after keap1 inactivation led to significant increases in HO-1 after 168 hours of DSS administration, when NF-κB nuclear translocation was noted. Significantly attenuated colitis was noted in DSS-challenged COX-2-/- mice, in which the levels of HO-1 were significantly decreased compared to DSS-challenged WT littermates (p < 0.01), while the levels of NQO1 were significantly increased. On DSS administration to Nrf2-/- mice, colitis was significantly aggravated (p < 0.01), in which the expressions of COX-2 as well as expressions of HO-1 and γ-GCS were significantly increased (p < 0.01). Reciprocal activations of inflammatory and antioxidative defense signaling after DSS administration might be prerequisite to make intestinal homeostasis and host defense Nrf2 system can determine colitis.

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