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Nutrition. 2019 Apr;60:241-251. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.011. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Effects of dietary sports supplements on metabolite accumulation, vasodilation and cellular swelling in relation to muscle hypertrophy: A focus on "secondary" physiological determinants.

Author information

1
Department of Kinesiology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, North Carolina, USA.
2
Human Movement Science Curriculum, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
3
Federal University of Maranhão UFMA, Department of Physical Education, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil; Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology of Skeletal Muscle LABCEMME, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil.
4
Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, College of Physical Education, Jinggangshan University, Ji'an, China; Department of Sports Medicine, Chengdu Sport Institute, Chengdu, China.
5
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology of Skeletal Muscle LABCEMME, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil.
6
Skeletal Muscle Assessment Laboratory, School of Technology and Sciences, Department of Physical Education. São Paulo State University, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil.
7
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology of Skeletal Muscle LABCEMME, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil; Immunometabolism of Skeletal Muscle and Exercise Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Piauí UFPI, Teresina-PI, Brazil.
8
Federal University of Maranhão UFMA, Department of Physical Education, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil; Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology of Skeletal Muscle LABCEMME, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil. Electronic address: neloz@ig.com.br.

Abstract

Increased blood flow via vasodilation, metabolite production, and venous pooling contribute to the hyperemia and cellular swelling experienced during resistance training. It has been suggested that these effects play a role in hypertrophic adaptations. Over the past 2 decades, sport supplement products have been marketed to promote exercise hyperemia and intracellular fluid storage, thereby enhancing hypertrophy via acute swelling of myocytes. The three main classes of supplements hypothesized to promote exercise-induced hyperemia include vasodilators, such as nitric oxide precursor supplements; anaerobic energy system ergogenic aids that increase metabolite production, such as β-alanine and creatine; and organic osmolytes, such as creatine and betaine. Previous studies indicated that these dietary supplements are able to improve muscle performance and thus enhance muscle hypertrophy; however, recent evidences also point to these three classes of supplements affecting "secondary" physiological determinants of muscle mass accretion such as vasodilation, metabolite accumulation, and muscle cellular swelling. Although we recognize that the literature is relatively scarce regarding these topics, a better comprehension and discussion of these determinants can lead to increased knowledge and might guide further research regarding the proposed mechanisms of action of the identified compounds. In this case, increased knowledge may contribute to the development of improved efficacy, new products, or direct new research to specifically investigate those secondary effects. The aim of this review was to bring into focus new perspectives associated with secondary physiological effects induced by supplementation and to determine their relevance.

KEYWORDS:

Beetroot juice; Beta-alanine; Betaine; Creatine; Ergogenic aids; Vasodilation

PMID:
30682546
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.011

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