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PLoS One. 2019 Jan 25;14(1):e0211222. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211222. eCollection 2019.

Bronchiectasis in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD in Spain: Influence on mortality, hospital stay, and hospital costs (2006-2014) according to gender.

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Respiratory Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain.
Preventive Medicine and Public Health Teaching and Research Unit. Health Sciences Faculty. Rey Juan Carlos University, Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain.



The objectives of this study were to analyze the characteristics of male and female patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) during 2006-2014 according to the presence or absence of bronchiectasis and to study the factors associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients hospitalized with AE-COPD and concomitant bronchiectasis.


We used the Spanish National Hospital Database to analyze patients admitted with AE-COPD as their primary diagnosis. Patients included in the study were stratified according to the presence or absence of bronchiectasis as their secondary diagnosis.


We identified 386,646 admissions for AE-COPD, of which 19,679 (5.09%) involved patients with concomitant bronchiectasis. When patients with and without bronchiectasis were compared, we observed that the incidence of infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was substantially higher in the former, as were the mean stay, cost, and percentage of readmissions, although IHM and comorbidity were lower. The course of patients with AE-COPD and bronchiectasis was characterized by a gradual increase in prevalence and mean age among men and no differences in prevalence or lower mean age in women. Mortality was 4.24% and 5.02% in patients with and without bronchiectasis, respectively, although significance was lost after a multivariate adjustment (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-1.01). The factors associated with IHM were older age, higher comorbidity, isolation of P. aeruginosa, mechanical ventilation and readmission.


The prevalence of admission with AE-COPD and bronchiectasis increased in men but not in women during the study period. In patients hospitalized with AE-COPD, we did not find differences in mortality when comparing the presence and absence of bronchiectasis. The analysis of temporal trends revealed a significant reduction in mortality from 2006 to 2014 in male patients with COPD and concomitant bronchiectasis, but not among women. It is important to consider the factors associated with IHM such as age, comorbidity, isolation of P. aeruginosa, mechanical ventilation and readmission to better identify those patients who are at greater risk of dying during hospitalization.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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