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Sports Med Open. 2019 Jan 24;5(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s40798-019-0177-0.

A Novel Ingestion Strategy for Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation in a Delayed-Release Form: a Randomised Crossover Study in Trained Males.

Author information

1
Sports Nutrition and Performance Group, Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Edge Hill University, St Helens Road, Ormskirk, L39 4QP, UK. hiltonn@edgehill.ac.uk.
2
Sports Nutrition and Performance Group, Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Edge Hill University, St Helens Road, Ormskirk, L39 4QP, UK.
3
School of Health Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK.
4
Therapies Department, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.
5
School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK.
6
Department of Sport and Movement Studies, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a well-established nutritional ergogenic aid, though gastrointestinal (GI) distress is a common side-effect. Delayed-release NaHCO3 may alleviate GI symptoms and enhance bicarbonate bioavailability following oral ingestion, although this has yet to be confirmed.

METHODS:

In a randomised crossover design, pharmacokinetic responses and acid-base status were compared following two forms of NaHCO3, as were GI symptoms. Twelve trained healthy males (mean ± SD age 25.8 ± 4.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) 58.9 ± 10.9 mL kg min-1, height 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass 82.3 ± 11.1 kg, fat-free mass 72.3 ± 10.0 kg) underwent a control (CON) condition and two experimental conditions: 300 mg kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 ingested as an aqueous solution (SOL) and encased in delayed-release capsules (CAP). Blood bicarbonate concentration, pH and base excess (BE) were measured in all conditions over 180 min, as were subjective GI symptom scores.

RESULTS:

Incidences of GI symptoms and overall severity were significantly lower (mean difference = 45.1%, P < 0.0005 and 47.5%, P < 0.0005 for incidences and severity, respectively) with the CAP than with the SOL. Symptoms displayed increases at 40 to 80 min post-ingestion with the SOL that were negated with CAP (P < 0.05). Time to reach peak bicarbonate concentration, pH and BE were significantly longer with CAP than with the SOL.

CONCLUSIONS:

In summary, CAP can mitigate GI symptoms induced with SOL and should be ingested earlier to induce similar acid-base changes. Furthermore, CAP may be more ergogenic in those who experience severe GI distress with SOL, although this warrants further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

Acid-base balance; Bioavailability; Exercise-induced fatigue; Extracellular buffer

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