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Sci Rep. 2019 Jan 24;9(1):531. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-36554-2.

Molecular Characterization of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae Isolated from Lebanon.

Author information

1
Department of Natural Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Byblos, 1401, Lebanon.
2
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, 1107, Lebanon.
3
Department of Natural Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Byblos, 1401, Lebanon. stokajian@lau.edu.lb.

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative organism and a major public health threat. In this study, we used whole-genome sequences to characterize 32 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) and two carbapenem-resistant K. quasipneumoniae (CRKQ). Antimicrobial resistance was assessed using disk diffusion and E-test, while virulence was assessed in silico. The capsule type was determined by sequencing the wzi gene. The plasmid diversity was assessed by PCR-based replicon typing to detect the plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups. The genetic relatedness was determined by multilocus sequence typing, pan-genome, and recombination analysis. All of the isolates were resistant to ertapenem together with imipenem and/or meropenem. Phenotypic resistance was due to blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaNDM-7, or the coupling of ESBLs and outer membrane porin modifications. This is the first comprehensive study reporting on the WGS of CRKP and the first detection of CRKQ in the region. The presence and dissemination of CRKP and CRKQ, with some additionally having characteristics of hypervirulent clones such as the hypermucoviscous phenotype and the capsular type K2, are particularly concerning. Additionally, mining the completely sequenced K. pneumoniae genomes revealed the key roles of mobile genetic elements in the spread of antibiotic resistance and in understanding the epidemiology of these clinically significant pathogens.

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