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Curr Med Chem. 2019 Jan 24. doi: 10.2174/0929867326666190124123831. [Epub ahead of print]

tiRNAs & tRFs Biogenesis and Regulation of Diseases: A Review Pan Jiang.

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1
Department of clinical Laboratory, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University & Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research´╝î42 Baiziting Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu. China.

Abstract

tiRNAs & tRFs are a class of small molecular noncoding tRNA derived from precise processing of mature or precursor tRNAs. Most tiRNAs & tRFs described originate from nucleus-encoded tRNAs, and only a few tiRNAs & tRFs have been reported. They have been suggested to play important roles in inhibiting protein synthesis, regulating gene expression, priming viral reverse transcriptases, and the modulation of DNA damage responses. However, the regulatory mechanisms and potential function of tiRNAs & tRFs remain poorly understood. This review aims to describe tiRNAs & tRFs, including their structure, biological functions and subcellular localization. The regulatory roles of tiRNAs & tRFs in translation, neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, viral infections, and carcinogenesis are also discussed in detail. Finally, it also highlights the potential applications of these noncoding tRNAs as biomarkers and gene regulators in different diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Biogenesis; Regulation.; miRNA; tRFs; tRNA; tiRNAs

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