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Nutrients. 2019 Jan 22;11(2). pii: E221. doi: 10.3390/nu11020221.

Soil Zinc Is Associated with Serum Zinc But Not with Linear Growth of Children in Ethiopia.

Author information

1
Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. masresha.tessema@wur.nl.
2
Food Science and Nutrition Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Gulele Sub City, 1242 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. masresha.tessema@wur.nl.
3
Human Nutrition Unit, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia. masresha.tessema@wur.nl.
4
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), 1041-00621 Nairobi, Kenya. h.degroote@cgiar.org.
5
Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. inge.brouwer@wur.nl.
6
Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. edith.feskens@wur.nl.
7
Human Nutrition Unit, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia. teferabelachew@gmail.com.
8
Food Science and Nutrition Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Gulele Sub City, 1242 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. dilnesaw2012@gmail.com.
9
Food Science and Nutrition Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Gulele Sub City, 1242 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. adamu_bel2000@yahoo.com.
10
Food Science and Nutrition Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Gulele Sub City, 1242 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. yose.deml@gmail.com.
11
Department of Nutrition Science and Public Health Graduate Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. gunaratna@purdue.edu.

Abstract

To our knowledge, the relationships among soil zinc, serum zinc and children's linear growth have not been studied geographically or at a national level in any country. We use data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative Ethiopian National Micronutrient Survey (ENMS) (n = 1776), which provided anthropometric and serum zinc (n = 1171) data on children aged 6⁻59 months. Soil zinc levels were extracted for each child from the digital soil map of Ethiopia, developed by the Africa Soil Information Service. Children's linear growth was computed using length/height and age converted into Z-scores for height-for-age. Multi-level mixed linear regression models were used for the analysis. Nationally, 28% of children aged 6⁻59 months were zinc deficient (24% when adjusted for inflammation) and 38% were stunted. Twenty percent of households in the ENMS were located on zinc-deficient soils. Soil zinc (in mg/kg) was positively associated with serum zinc (in µg/dL) (b = 0.9, p = 0.020) and weight-for-height-Z-score (b = 0.05, p = 0.045) but linear growth was not associated with soil zinc (p = 0.604) or serum zinc (p = 0.506) among Ethiopian preschool children. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether there are causal links between soil and human zinc status.

KEYWORDS:

Ethiopia; linear growth; preschool children; serum zinc; soil fertility; soil zinc

PMID:
30678175
PMCID:
PMC6413067
DOI:
10.3390/nu11020221
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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