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Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2018 Dec;38(6):1189-1195. doi: 10.5851/kosfa.2018.e50. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Development of Hydrogels to Improve the Safety of Yukhoe (Korean Beef Tartare) by Reducing Psychrotrophic Listeria monocytogenes Cell Counts on Raw Beef Surface.

Oh H1,2, Kim S2, Lee S2, Ha J1,2, Lee J1,2, Choi Y1,2, Lee Y1,2, Kim Y1,2, Seo Y1,2, Yoon Y1,2.

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Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, Korea.
Risk Analysis Research Center, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, Korea.


This study developed an antimicrobial hydrogel to control Listeria monocytogenes in Yukhoe (Korean beef tartare). Four hydrogels (hydrogel 1: 5% alginate+1% chitosan+0.2% CaCl2, hydrogel 2: 1% κ-carrageenan+1% chitosan, hydrogel 3: 2% κ-carrageenan+1% CaCl2, and hydrogel 4: 2% κ-carrageenan+3% CaCl2) were prepared. The hydrogels then absorbed 0.1% grapefruit seed extract (GSE) and 0.1% citrus extract (CE) for 30, 60, 120, and 240 min to be antimicrobial hydrogels. To select the most effective antimicrobial hydrogel, their swelling ratio (SR) and antilisterial activities were determined. The selected hydrogel (2×2 cm) was then placed on surface of beef (round; 3×3 cm), where L. monocytogenes (ca. 106 CFU/g) were inoculated, and the cell counts were enumerated on PALCAM agar. Among the hydrogels, the SR of hydrogel 1 increased with absorbing time, but other hydrogels showed no significant changes. Antimicrobial hydrogel 1 showed higher (p<0.05) antilisterial activity than other antimicrobial hydrogels, especially for the one absorbed the antimicrobial for 120 min. Thus, the antimicrobial hydrogel 1 absorbed antimicrobials for 120 min was applied on raw beef at 4℃, and reduced (p<0.05) more than 90% of L. monocytogenes on raw beef. These results indicate that antimicrobial hydrogel 1 formulated with 0.1% GSE or 0.1% CE is appropriate to improve the safety of Yukhoe by reducing psychrotrophic L. monocytogenes cell counts on raw beef.


Listeria monocytogenes; Yukhoe; antimicrobial; hydrogel patch; natural antibiotic agent

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no potential conflict of interest.

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