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Pharm Res. 2019 Jan 23;36(3):40. doi: 10.1007/s11095-019-2569-8.

Review of Biomarkers in Ocular Matrices: Challenges and Opportunities.

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Clinical Pharmacology, Allergan plc, 2525 Dupont Drive, Irvine, California, 92612, USA.
Biological Research, Allergan plc, 2525 Dupont Drive, Irvine, California, 92612, USA.
Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lawrence Township, New Jersey, 08648, USA.


Biomarkers provide a powerful and dynamic approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ocular diseases with applications in diagnosis, disease modulation or for predicting and monitoring of clinical response to treatment. Defined as measurable indicator of normal or pathological processes, biomarker evaluation has been used extensively in drug development within clinical settings to better comprehend effectiveness of treatment in ocular diseases. Biomarkers in the eye have the advantage of access to multiple ocular matrices via minimally invasive methods. Repeat sampling for biomarker assessment has enabled reproducible objective measures of disease process or biological responses to a drug treatment. This review describes the usage of biomarkers with respect to four commonly sampled ocular matrices in clinic: tears, conjunctiva, aqueous humor and vitreous. Issues that affect the evaluation of biomarkers are discussed along with opportunities to leverage biomarkers such that ultimately, they can be used for customized targeted therapy.


aqueous humor; biomarkers; conjunctiva; ocular diseases; tears; vitreous

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