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Plant Dis. 2018 Feb;102(2):300-308. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-17-0276-RE. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Genetic Characterization of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Population in Turkey.

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Wageningen University and Research, Plant Breeding, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Cukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 01330 Adana, Turkey.
Namik Kemal University, Department of Plant Protection, TR-59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.
Wageningen University and Research, Bio-interactions and Plant Health, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.


The pathogenic gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis et al. is the most harmful bacterium to tomatoes in many countries with a cooler climate. Multilocus sequence analysis was performed on five housekeeping genes (bipA, gyrB, kdpA, ligA, and sdhA) and three virulence-related genes (ppaA, chpC, and tomA) to determine evolutionary relationships and population structure of 108 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains collected from Turkey between 1996 and 2012. Based on these analyses, we concluded that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Turkey is highly uniform. However, at least four novel C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains were recently introduced, possibly at the beginning of the 1990s. The singletons might point to additional sources or to strains that have evolved locally in Turkey.

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