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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Feb;67(2):196-203. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_524_18.

Visual function assessment, ocular examination, and intervention in children with developmental delay: A systematic approach. Part 1.

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Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Vision Rehabilitation Professional, Frontline Eye Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Chetana Trust, Arunachalam Road, Kotturpuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Children with special needs form a unique subset with regards to visual function and examination techniques needed to assess them. With more awareness among the general public, neurologists, and pediatricians, these children are referred for assessment to the ophthalmologist or optometrist and sometimes even to the rehabilitation professional at an early age. This clinical practice guideline and review gives a systematic approach for examining the visual functions of a child with special needs. It outlines the procedures to be followed with equipment needed in clinical practice. Functional vision assessment guidelines are also included. This is the first part in a two-part series, with the first part presenting clinical examination guidelines and the second presenting intervention and vision enhancement techniques.


Cerebral visual impairment; developmental delay; functional vision

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