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Med Sci (Paris). 2019 Jan;35(1):39-45. doi: 10.1051/medsci/2018311. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

[Genetics and origin of Homo sapiens].

[Article in French]

Author information

1
Université Paris Diderot, Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, CNRS UMR7057, bâtiment Condorcet, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris, France.

Abstract

Usually, paleoanthropology studies remains and artefacts. However, more recently, genetics offer new avenues. Information on humanisation mechanisms has been obtained from comparison with primate or archaic Homo DNA sequences. Likewise, the 1 000 Genomes Project has characterized the geographic spectrum of human genetic variation offering a basis for a genomic study of Homo sapiens phylogeny. From these studies, a model, Out of Africa, was derived. His origin is Africa, where he lived 200 000 years ago. A small fraction of the population left Africa between 50 and 100 000 years ago that have populated the rest of the world, to Europe, coastal Asia to Australia and mainland Asia to Behring Land Bridge and America. The model is supported by the decrease of genetic diversity with the distance to Eastern Africa (serial founder effect). In Europe and Asia, Homo sapiens met archaic Homo neanderthalis and H denisova. The presence of 1-3% neanderthalis sequences in modern Homo ADN indicates admixtures between these groups. Some archaic sequences are on positive selection pressure, thus suggesting that the extinct hominins might have facilitated the adaptation of H sapiens to new environments.

PMID:
30672457
DOI:
10.1051/medsci/2018311

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