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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 21;16(2). pii: E294. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16020294.

E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells.

Author information

1
Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Laval, 2420 de la Terrasse, Québec (Québec) Canada G1V 0A6. humidah.alanazi.1@ulaval.ca.
2
Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Laval, 2420 de la Terrasse, Québec (Québec) Canada G1V 0A6. abdelhabib.semlali.1@ulaval.ca.
3
Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Laval, 2420 de la Terrasse, Québec (Québec) Canada G1V 0A6. Witold.Chmielewski@fmd.ulaval.ca.
4
Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Laval, 2420 de la Terrasse, Québec (Québec) Canada G1V 0A6. mahmoud.rouabhia@fmd.ulaval.ca.

Abstract

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vapor comes in contact with the different constituents of the oral cavity, including such microorganisms as Candida albicans. We examined the impact of e-cigarettes on C. albicans growth and expression of different virulent genes, such as secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs), and the effect of e-cigarette vapor-exposed C. albicans on gingival epithelial cell morphology, growth, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. An increase in C. albicans growth was observed with nicotine-rich e-cigarettes compared with non-exposed cultures. Following exposure to e-cigarette vapor, C. albicans produced high levels of chitin. E-cigarettes also increased C. albicans hyphal length and the expression of SAP2, SAP3, and SAP9 genes. When in contact with gingival epithelial cells, e-cigarette-exposed C. albicans adhered better to epithelial cells than the control. Indirect contact between e-cigarette-exposed C. albicans and gingival epithelial cells led to epithelial cell differentiation, reduced cell growth, and increased LDH activity. Overall, results indicate that e-cigarettes may interact with C. albicans to promote their pathogenesis, which may increase the risk of oral candidiasis in e-cigarette users.

KEYWORDS:

C. albicans; LDH; SAP genes; e-cigarettes; epithelial cells; growth

PMID:
30669681
PMCID:
PMC6352080
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph16020294
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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