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Indian J Med Res. 2018 Nov;148(5):539-547. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1775_18.

Prevention & control of fluorosis & linked disorders: Developments in the 21st Century - Reaching out to patients in the community & hospital settings for recovery.

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ICMR-Centre of Excellence for Fluorosis Research, Fluorosis Research & Rural Development Foundation, Delhi, India.
Centre for Promotion of Nutrition Research and Training with special focus on North East, tribal & Inaccessible Population, Division of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research (Campus II), Tuberculosis Association of India Building, New Delhi; ICMR-Desert Medicine Research Centre, Jodhpur, India.


The review on fluorosis addresses the genesis of the disease, diagnostic protocols developed, mitigation and recovery through nutritional interventions. It reveals the structural and functional damages caused to skeletal muscle and erythrocytes, leading to clinical manifestations in fluorosis. Hormonal derangements resulting in serious abnormalities in the health of children and adults are discussed. Fluoride toxicity destroys the probiotics in the gut, resulting in vitamin B12depletion, an essential ingredient in haemoglobin (Hb) biosynthesis. The article provides an overview of National Technology Mission on Safe Drinking Water and its contributions to fluorosis control. National Programme for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis is presently in operation in India and its focus cited. Major emphasis has been laid on a variety of disorders surfacing in India due to fluoride toxicity/fluorosis as 'fluorosis-linked disorders', viz. anaemia in pregnancy, schoolchildren, thyroid hormone abnormalities, hypertension, iodine deficiency disorders/goitre, renal failure and calcium+vitamin D-resistant rickets in children. The major action taken by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Government of India in establishing a Centre of Excellence for Fluorosis Research in India and its contributions are highlighted.


Anaemia; diagnosis; hypertension; interventions; recovery; status fluorosis; stillbirth

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