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J Vet Intern Med. 2019 Mar;33(2):764-775. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15405. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Associations of environment, health history, T-zone lymphoma, and T-zone-like cells of undetermined significance: A case-control study of aged Golden Retrievers.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
2
Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

T-zone lymphoma (TZL), an indolent disease in older dogs, comprises approximately 12% of lymphomas in dogs. TZL cells exhibit an activated phenotype, indicating the disease may be antigen-driven. Prior research found that asymptomatic aged Golden Retrievers (GLDRs) commonly have populations of T-zone-like cells (phenotypically identical to TZL) of undetermined significance (TZUS).

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate associations of inflammatory conditions, TZL and TZUS, using a case-control study of GLDRs.

ANIMALS:

TZL cases (n = 140), flow cytometrically diagnosed, were identified through Colorado State University's Clinical Immunology Laboratory. Non-TZL dogs, recruited through either a database of owners interested in research participation or the submitting clinics of TZL cases, were subsequently flow cytometrically classified as TZUS (n = 221) or control (n = 147).

METHODS:

Health history, signalment, environmental, and lifestyle factors were obtained from owner-completed questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, obtaining separate estimates for TZL and TZUS (versus controls).

RESULTS:

Hypothyroidism (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), omega-3 supplementation (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and mange (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21.1) were significantly associated with TZL. Gastrointestinal disease (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.98-5.8) had nonsignificantly increased TZL odds. Two shared associations for TZL and TZUS were identified: bladder infection or calculi (TZL OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.7; TZUS OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.9-13.7) and eye disease (TZL OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.97-5.2; TZUS OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.99-3.8).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

These findings may elucidate pathways involved in TZUS risk and progression from TZUS to TZL. Further investigation into the protective association of omega-3 supplements is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

dog; epidemiology; lymphosarcoma; noninfectious diseases; oncology; statistical modeling

PMID:
30666722
PMCID:
PMC6430877
DOI:
10.1111/jvim.15405
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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