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Front Immunol. 2019 Jan 7;9:3089. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03089. eCollection 2018.

Pneumococcal Immunization Reduces Neurological and Hepatic Symptoms in a Mouse Model for Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
2
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
4
Center for Molecular Medicine, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
5
Liver Research Unit, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
6
Department of Gastroenterology-Hepatology and Metabolic Center, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
7
Section Molecular Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Abstract

Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is caused by a deleterious mutation in the Npc1 gene, causing lysosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and sphingolipids. Consequently, NPC1 disease patients suffer from severe neurovisceral symptoms which, in the absence of effective treatments, result in premature death. NPC1 disease patients display increased plasma levels of cholesterol oxidation products such as those enriched in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a pro-inflammatory mediator. While it has been shown that inflammation precedes and exacerbates symptom severity in NPC1 disease, it is unclear whether oxLDL contributes to NPC1 disease progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of increasing anti-oxLDL IgM autoantibodies on systemic and neurological symptoms in an NPC1 disease mouse model. For this purpose, Npc1 nih mice were immunized with heat-inactivated S. pneumoniae, an immunogen which elicits an IgM autoantibody-mediated immune response against oxLDL. Npc1 nih mice injected with heat-inactivated pneumococci displayed an improved hepatic phenotype, including liver lipid accumulation and inflammation. In addition, regression of motor skills was delayed in immunized Npc1 nih . In line with these results, brain analyses showed an improved cerebellar phenotype and neuroinflammation in comparison with control-treated subjects. This study highlights the potential of the pneumococcal immunization as a novel therapeutical approach in NPC1 disease. Future research should investigate whether implementation of this therapy can improve life span and quality of life of NPC1 disease patients.

KEYWORDS:

Niemann-Pick type C1; inflammation; lipid metabolism; oxidized low-density lipoprotein; pneumococcal immunization

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