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Saudi Pharm J. 2019 Jan;27(1):88-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.09.001. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from the root of Jatropha pelargoniifolia Courb. native to Saudi Arabia.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura 35516, Egypt.
3
TU Dortmund University, Technical Biochemistry, Emil-Figge-Strasse 66, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany.

Abstract

The chemical composition of the essential oil from Jatropha pelargoniifolia roots was determined via GC-FID. There were 80 compounds, representing 99.99% of the total oil constituents. Among these, 77.31% were sesquiterpenes, 14.62% were fatty acids, 7.21% were other components (i.e., phenolics, hydrocarbons, etc.), and 0.85% were monoterpenes. The major compounds in the oil were γ-eudesmol (35.31%), 5-guaien-11-ol (14.43%), epi-cedrol (8.19%), oleic acid (5.23%), bulnesol (4.45%), α-linoleic acid (4.20%), 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (3.83%), palmitic acid (2.69%), isolongifolanone (2.68%), eicosane (1.41%), and cedrol (1.14%). Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found to represent more than 50% percent of the total oil content. Moreover, the essential oil was evaluated for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and antinociceptive activities using in vivo and in vitro models. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the oil was evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant tests, including DPPH, ABTS•+ and FRAP. At a dose of 240 µl/kg, the oil showed anti-inflammatory (59.12%), antipyretic (37.00 ± 0.11), and antinociceptive (47.58%) activities and showed significant (p < 0.001) effect as compared to a standard drug (phenylbutazone and indomethacin). These findings demonstrated that the essential oil of Jatropha pelargoniifolia root could be used as a natural source for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, and antioxidant effects.

KEYWORDS:

ABTS, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); Anti-inflammatory activity; Antinociceptive activity; Antioxidant activity; Antipyretic activity; DPPH, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; Essential oil; Euphorbiaceae; FRAP, ferric reducing antioxidant power; GC-FID, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector; Jatropha pelargoniifolia; RI, retention indices; Rt, retention time; TCA, trichloroacetic acid; b.w., body weight; i.p., intraperitoneal; s.c, subcutaneous

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