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Atherosclerosis. 2018 Dec 23;281:56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.12.017. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of intakes of fish and Camelina sativa oil on atherogenic and anti-atherogenic functions of LDL and HDL particles: A randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: suvi.manninen@uef.fi.
2
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
3
Atherosclerosis Research Laboratory, Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
4
Atherosclerosis Research Laboratory, Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Research Programs Unit, University of Helsinki, Finland.
5
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Medicine, Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Omega-3 fatty acids are known to have several cardioprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effects of intakes of fish and Camelina sativa oil (CSO), rich in alpha-linolenic acid, on the atherogenic and anti-atherogenic functions of LDL and HDL particles.

METHODS:

Altogether, 88 volunteers with impaired glucose metabolism were randomly assigned to CSO (10 g of alpha-linolenic acid/day), fatty fish (4 fish meals/week), lean fish (4 fish meals/week) or control group for 12 weeks. 79 subjects completed the study. The binding of lipoproteins to aortic proteoglycans, LDL aggregation and activation of endothelial cells by LDL and cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL were determined in vitro.

RESULTS:

Intake of CSO decreased the binding of lipoproteins to aortic proteoglycans in a non-normalized model (p = 0.006). After normalizing with serum concentrations of non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB) or LDL cholesterol, which decreased in the CSO group, the change was no longer statistically significant. In the fish groups, there were no changes in the binding of lipoproteins to proteoglycans. Regarding other lipoprotein functions, there were no changes in any of the groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Intake of CSO decreases the binding of lipoproteins to aortic proteoglycans by decreasing serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which suggests that the level of apoB-containing lipoproteins in the circulation is the main driver of lipoprotein retention within the arterial wall. Intake of fish or CSO has no effects on other lipoprotein functions.

KEYWORDS:

Cholesterol efflux; Diet; Human; Interleukin-8; LDL aggregation; Omega-3 fatty acid; Proteoglycan

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