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Adv Nutr. 2019 Mar 1;10(2):219-236. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy073.

Dietary Patterns in Relation to Low Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Biotechnology.
School of Specialization in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine.
Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Public Heath, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.


Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis-related fractures constitute a considerable public health burden. Several studies have demonstrated the association between diet and bone health. We performed a systematic review to provide an estimate of the association between different dietary patterns defined through the use of a posteriori methods and fracture or low BMD risk. A literature search on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, up to March 2018, was performed to identify all eligible case-control, prospective, or cross-sectional studies involving subjects of both sexes and any age. Random-effects models were used. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. Stratified analyses were conducted on study characteristics. The meta-analysis includes 20 studies and identifies 3 prevalent dietary patterns: "Healthy," "Milk/dairy," and "Meat/Western." From the 10 studies on fracture, adherence to the "Healthy" pattern reduced the risk, particularly in older people (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.95; P = 0.011) and in Eastern countries (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.97; P = 0.037), whereas the risk increased with the "Meat/Western" pattern, especially for older people (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18, P = 0.001), in those with hip fractures (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.25; P = 0.002), and in Western countries (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14; P < 0.0001). Analyses on low BMD showed a reduced risk in the "Healthy" pattern, particularly for younger people (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89; P = 0.009). The "Meat/Western" pattern increased low BMD risk, especially in older people (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.64; P = 0.015). The "Milk/dairy" pattern resulted in the strongest reduction in low BMD risk; when stratifying, this effect remained significant (e.g., older women-OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.70; P < 0.0001). Nutrition is an important modifiable factor affecting bone health. The "Healthy" and "Milk/dairy" patterns are associated with a reduced risk of low BMD and fracture. In contrast, the "Western" pattern is inversely associated.


bone fracture; bone mineral density; dietary pattern; meta-analysis; systematic review

[Available on 2020-03-01]

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