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Infection. 2019 Jan 17. doi: 10.1007/s15010-019-01269-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Tularemia: an experience of 13 cases including a rare myocarditis in a referral center in Eastern Switzerland (Central Europe) and a review of the literature.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
2
Division of General Internal Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
3
Center of Laboratory Medicine (ZLM), Frohbergstrasse 3, 9001, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
4
Division of Cardiology, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
5
Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
6
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Carol.strahm@kssg.ch.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Tularemia, a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, can cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans including six major clinical presentations: the ulceroglandular, glandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, typhoidal and pneumonic form. The epidemiology and ecology and thus transmission of tularemia are complex, depending on conditions unique to specific locations.

CASE SERIES AND METHODS:

Thirteen cases with different forms of the disease and one very rare case of a myocarditis are reported, discussed, and reviewed within the scope of current literature.

CONCLUSION:

Tularemia is a rare, but emerging disease in Central Europe with glandular and ulceroglandular disease as its predominant forms. Transmission is mainly caused by contact with lagomorphs, rodents and tick bites. However, domestic cats may play an important role in transmission too. Myocarditis is probably a worldwide, but very rare manifestation of tularemia.

KEYWORDS:

Francisella tularensis; Glandular tularemia; Myocarditis; Oculoglandular tularemia; Pulmonary tularemia; Tularemia

PMID:
30656604
DOI:
10.1007/s15010-019-01269-7

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