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BMC Genomics. 2019 Jan 17;20(1):54. doi: 10.1186/s12864-018-5368-4.

SNP-ChIP: a versatile and tag-free method to quantify changes in protein binding across the genome.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY, 10003, USA.
2
Present address: BioQuant Center, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
3
Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY, 10003, USA. andi@nyu.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the method of choice for mapping genome-wide binding of chromatin-associated factors. However, broadly applicable methods for between-sample comparisons are lacking.

RESULTS:

Here, we introduce SNP-ChIP, a method that leverages small-scale intra-species polymorphisms, mainly SNPs, for quantitative spike-in normalization of ChIP-seq results. Sourcing spike-in material from the same species ensures antibody cross-reactivity and physiological coherence, thereby eliminating two central limitations of traditional spike-in approaches. We show that SNP-ChIP is robust to changes in sequencing depth and spike-in proportions, and reliably identifies changes in overall protein levels, irrespective of changes in binding distribution. Application of SNP-ChIP to test cases from budding yeast meiosis allowed discovery of novel regulators of the chromosomal protein Red1 and quantitative analysis of the DNA-damage associated histone modification γ-H2AX.

CONCLUSION:

SNP-ChIP is fully compatible with the intra-species diversity of humans and most model organisms and thus offers a general method for normalizing ChIP-seq results.

KEYWORDS:

ChIP-seq; Chromatin immunoprecipitation; Chromosomal proteins; Meiosis; Normalization; Post-translational modification; S. cerevisiae; Spike-in

PMID:
30654749
PMCID:
PMC6337847
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-018-5368-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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