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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 16;20(2). pii: E352. doi: 10.3390/ijms20020352.

Hibernation and Radioprotection: Gene Expression in the Liver and Testicle of Rats Irradiated under Synthetic Torpor.

Author information

1
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany. w.tinganelli@gsi.de.
2
TIFPA, Trento Institute for Fundamentals Physics and Applications, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Via Sommarive 14-38123 Povo, TN, Italy. w.tinganelli@gsi.de.
3
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Physiology; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta S.Donato, 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy. timna.hitrec@gmail.com.
4
Medical Physics, S.Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti, 9-40138 Bologna, Italy. fabrizio.romani@aosp.bo.it.
5
Department of Science and Technology, Parthenope University of Naples, Centro Direzionale isola C4, 80143 Napoli, Italy. palma.simoniello@uniparthenope.it.
6
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Physiology; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta S.Donato, 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy. fabio.squarcio@studio.unibo.it.
7
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50, Ozzano dell'Emilia, 40064 Bologna, Italy. agnese.stanzani2@unibo.it.
8
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Physiology; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta S.Donato, 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy. piscitiello.emiliana@gmail.com.
9
TIFPA, Trento Institute for Fundamentals Physics and Applications, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Via Sommarive 14-38123 Povo, TN, Italy. valentina.marchesano@tifpa.infn.it.
10
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Physiology; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta S.Donato, 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy. marco.luppi@unibo.it.
11
Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna. Via Irnerio, 46, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Massimiliano.Sioli@bo.infn.it.
12
Department of Physics and Astronomy; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Massimiliano.Sioli@bo.infn.it.
13
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany. a.helm@gsi.de.
14
Medical Physics, S.Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti, 9-40138 Bologna, Italy. gaetano.compagnone@aosp.bo.it.
15
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy. alessio.morganti2@unibo.it.
16
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Physiology; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta S.Donato, 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy. roberto.amici@unibo.it.
17
Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna. Via Irnerio, 46, 40126 Bologna, Italy. matteo.negrini@bo.infn.it.
18
Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna. Via Irnerio, 46, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Antonio.Zoccoli@bo.infn.it.
19
Department of Physics and Astronomy; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Antonio.Zoccoli@bo.infn.it.
20
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany. m.durante@gsi.de.
21
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hochschulstraße 6, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany. m.durante@gsi.de.
22
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Physiology; Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta S.Donato, 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy. matteo.cerri@unibo.it.
23
Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna. Via Irnerio, 46, 40126 Bologna, Italy. matteo.cerri@unibo.it.

Abstract

Hibernation has been proposed as a tool for human space travel. In recent years, a procedure to induce a metabolic state known as "synthetic torpor" in non-hibernating mammals was successfully developed. Synthetic torpor may not only be an efficient method to spare resources and reduce psychological problems in long-term exploratory-class missions, but may also represent a countermeasure against cosmic rays. Here we show the preliminary results from an experiment in rats exposed to ionizing radiation in normothermic conditions or synthetic torpor. Animals were irradiated with 3 Gy X-rays and organs were collected 4 h after exposure. Histological analysis of liver and testicle showed a reduced toxicity in animals irradiated in torpor compared to controls irradiated at normal temperature and metabolic activity. The expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in the liver was significantly downregulated in the group of animal in synthetic torpor. In the testicle, more genes involved in the DNA damage signaling were downregulated during synthetic torpor. These data show for the first time that synthetic torpor is a radioprotector in non-hibernators, similarly to natural torpor in hibernating animals. Synthetic torpor can be an effective strategy to protect humans during long term space exploration of the solar system.

KEYWORDS:

ATM; hibernation; hypothermia; liver; radiation; raphe pallidus; space exploration; synthetic torpor; testicle; torpor

PMID:
30654467
PMCID:
PMC6359347
DOI:
10.3390/ijms20020352
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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