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Ann Card Anaesth. 2019 Jan-Mar;22(1):56-66. doi: 10.4103/aca.ACA_67_18.

A survey of practices during cardiopulmonary bypass in India: An Indian association of cardiovascular and thoracic anesthesiologist endeavor.

Author information

Ozone Anesthesia Group, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Anesthesia, Narayana Institute of Cardiac Sciences, Narayana Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Relief, Fortis Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Department of Anaesthesia, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Anesthesia, Lisie Hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
Department of Anesthesia, Hinduja and Lilavati Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Anesthesia, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Services, Aster Medcity, Kochi, Kerala, India.



Cardiac anesthesiologists play a key role during the conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). There are variations in the practice of CPB among extracorporeal technologists in India. Aims: The aim of this survey is to gather information on variations during the conduct of CPB in India.

Settings and Design:

This was an online conducted survey by Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia, which is the research and academic wing of the Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Anaesthesiologists.

Subjects and Methods:

Senior consultants heading cardiac anesthesia departments in both teaching and nonteaching centers (performing at least 15 cases a month) were contacted using an online questionnaire fielded using SurveyMonkey™ software. There were 33 questions focusing on institute information, perfusion practices, blood conservation on CPB; monitoring and anesthesia practices.


The response rate was 74.2% (187/252). Fifty-one (26%) centers were teaching centers; 18% centers performed more than 1000 cases annually. Crystalloid solution was the most common priming solution used. Twenty-three percent centers used corticosteroids routinely; methylprednisone was the most commonly used agent. The cardioplegia solution used by most responders was the one available commercially containing high potassium St. Thomas solution (55%), followed by Del Nido cardioplegia (33%). Majority of the responders used nasopharyngeal site to monitor intraoperative patient temperature. Antifibrinolytics were commonly used only in patients who were at high risk for bleeding by 51% of responders, while yet, another 39% used them routinely, and 11% never did. About 59% of the centers insist on only fresh blood (<7 days old) when blood transfusion was indicated. The facility to use vaporizer on CPB was available in 62% of the centers. All the teaching centers or high volume centers in India had access to transesophageal echocardiography probe and echo machine, with 51% using them routinely and 38% using them at least sometimes.


There is a wide heterogeneity in CPB management protocols among various Indian cardiac surgery centers. The survey suggests that adherence to evidence-based and internationally accepted practices appears to be more prevalent in centers that have ongoing teaching programs and/or have high volumes, strengthening the need to devise guidelines by appropriate body to help bring in uniformity in CPB management to ensure patient safety and high quality of clinical care for best outcomes.


Cardiopulmonary bypass survey; Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Anaesthesiologists/Indian College of Cardiac Anesthesia; evidence based Best CPB practices

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