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Ann Card Anaesth. 2019 Jan-Mar;22(1):6-17. doi: 10.4103/aca.ACA_41_18.

Cardiac output monitoring: Technology and choice.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.


The accurate quantification of cardiac output (CO) is given vital importance in modern medical practice, especially in high-risk surgical and critically ill patients. CO monitoring together with perioperative protocols to guide intravenous fluid therapy and inotropic support with the aim of improving CO and oxygen delivery has shown to improve perioperative outcomes in high-risk surgical patients. Understanding of the underlying principles of CO measuring devices helps in knowing the limitations of their use and allows more effective and safer utilization. At present, no single CO monitoring device can meet all the clinical requirements considering the limitations of diverse CO monitoring techniques. The evidence for the minimally invasive CO monitoring is conflicting; however, different CO monitoring devices may be used during the clinical course of patients as an integrated approach based on their invasiveness and the need for additional hemodynamic data. These devices add numerical trend information for anesthesiologists and intensivists to use in determining the most appropriate management of their patients and at present, do not completely prohibit but do increasingly limit the use of the pulmonary artery catheter.


Bioreactance; cardiac output monitoring; minimally invasive monitors; thermodilution technique

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