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JAMA Netw Open. 2018 Aug 3;1(4):e181079. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.1079.

Risk Factors Associated With Major Cardiovascular Events 1 Year After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Author information

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.
Richard and Susan Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
National Clinical Research Center of Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
Department of Cardiology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Early Prediction and Intervention of Acute Myocardial Infarction, Beijing, China.
Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart & Vascular Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.



Patients who survive acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a high risk of subsequent major cardiovascular events. Efforts to identify risk factors for recurrence have primarily focused on the period immediately following AMI admission.


To identify risk factors and develop and evaluate a risk model that predicts 1-year cardiovascular events after AMI.

Design, Setting, and Participants:

Prospective cohort study. Patients with AMI (nā€‰=ā€‰4227), aged 18 years or older, discharged alive from 53 acute-care hospitals across China from January 1, 2013, to July 17, 2014. Patients were randomly divided into samples: training (50% [2113 patients]), test (25% [1057 patients]), and validation (25% [1057 patients]). Risk factors were identified by a Cox model with Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation and further evaluated by latent class analysis. Analyses were conducted from May 1, 2017, to January 21, 2018.

Main Outcomes and Measures:

Major cardiovascular events, including recurrent AMI, stroke, heart failure, and death, within 1 year after discharge for the index AMI hospitalization.


The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 60.8 (11.8) years and 994 of 4227 patients (23.5%) were female. Common comorbidities included hypertension (2358 patients [55.8%]), coronary heart disease (1798 patients [42.5%]), and dyslipidemia (1290 patients [30.5%]). One-year event rates were 8.1% (95% CI, 6.91%-9.24%), 9.0% (95% CI, 7.22%-10.70%), and 6.4% (95% CI, 4.89%-7.85%) for the training, test, and validation samples, respectively. Nineteen risk factors comprising 15 unique variables (age, education, prior AMI, prior ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, hypertension, angina, prearrival medical assistance, >4 hours from onset of symptoms to admission, ejection fraction, renal dysfunction, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, blood glucose, and in-hospital complications) were identified. In the training, test, and validation samples, respectively, the risk model had C statistics of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75-0.83), 0.73 (95% CI, 0.68-0.78), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.83) and a predictive range of 1.2% to 33.9%, 1.2% to 37.9%, and 1.3% to 34.3%. The C statistic was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.65-0.74) for the latent class model in the training data. The risk model stratified 11.3%, 81.0%, and 7.7% of patients to high-, average-, and low-risk groups, with respective probabilities of 0.32, 0.06, and 0.01 for 1-year events.

Conclusions and Relevance:

Nineteen risk factors were identified, and a model was developed and evaluated to predict risk of 1-year cardiovascular events after AMI. This may aid clinicians in identifying high-risk patients who would benefit most from intensive follow-up and aggressive risk factor reduction.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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