Send to

Choose Destination
J Patient Rep Outcomes. 2019 Jan 15;3(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s41687-018-0090-1.

Development and adaptation of patient-reported outcome measures for patients who experience itch associated with primary biliary cholangitis.

Author information

Health Research Associates, Inc., 6505 216th St. SW, Suite 105, Mountlake Terrace, WA, 98043, USA.
Health Research Associates, Inc., 6505 216th St. SW, Suite 105, Mountlake Terrace, WA, 98043, USA.
, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S. Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, USA.
Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.



To conduct qualitative interviews to evaluate and refine the Itch Diary (ID) and weekly version of the PBC-40 in patients with itching associated with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC).


Twenty adults with self-reported PBC diagnoses and recent/ongoing itching of at least moderate intensity participated in face-to-face qualitative combined concept elicitation (CE) interviews and cognitive interviews after completing the morning and evening versions of the ID and weekly version of the PBC-40. These questionnaires were evaluated to confirm saturation of concepts of interest and cognitively test the English language versions of the measures in patients with PBC in the US and Canada. Transcripts were organized into descriptions of PBC-related symptoms and symptom-related impacts using a structured coding framework. Two waves of interviews were conducted; revisions made after wave 1 were further tested in wave 2.


Interview results confirmed the relevance of concepts presented in the PBC-40 and ID to patients' experiences. Saturation of concept was achieved. Itching-related signs and symptoms (46%) were the most commonly expressed symptom concept in the CE interviews followed by energy-related (14%) and additional signs/symptoms (13%). Several changes to the ID were made in response to cognitive interview results. Changes to the PBC-40 included adaptations from British to North American English, and the appropriateness of a 7-day recall period was confirmed.


Relevance of the symptom and impact concepts in the ID to measure PBC-related itch were confirmed. Adaptation of the PBC-40 to a weekly recall period and for North American English was successful.


Itch; PBC; Patient-reported outcomes; Primary biliary cholangitis; Pruritus; Qualitative

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center