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Neuropsychol Rev. 2019 Jan 14. doi: 10.1007/s11065-018-9386-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Cognitive Bias Modification for Behavior Change in Alcohol and Smoking Addiction: Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129B, 1018, Amsterdam, WS, Netherlands. marilisa.boffo@gmail.com.
2
Department of Psychology, University Paris Nanterre, Paris, France.
3
Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129B, 1018, Amsterdam, WS, Netherlands.
4
Trimbos Instituut, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, Netherlands.
5
School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, UK.
6
Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129B, 1018, Amsterdam, WS, Netherlands. r.w.wiers@gmail.com.

Abstract

Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) refers to a family of interventions targeting substance-related cognitive biases, which have been found to play a role in the maintenance of addictive behaviors. In this study, we conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis of individual patient data from studies investigating the effects of CBM as a behavior change intervention for the treatment of alcohol and tobacco use disorders, in individuals aware of the behavior change goal of the studies. Main outcomes included reduction in the targeted cognitive biases after the intervention and in substance use or relapse rate at the short-to-long term follow-up. Additional moderators, both at the study-level (type of addiction and CBM training) and at the participant-level (amount of completed training trials, severity of substance use), were progressively included in a series of hierarchical mixed-effects models. We included 14 studies involving 2435 participants. CBM appeared to have a small effect on cognitive bias (0.23, 95% credible interval = 0.06-0.41) and relapse rate (-0.27, 95% credible interval = -0.68 - 0.22), but not on reduction of substance use. Increased training practice showed a paradoxical moderation effect on relapse, with a relatively lower chance of relapse in the control condition with increased practice, compared to the training condition. All effects were associated with extremely wide 95% credible intervals, which indicate the absence of enough evidence in favor or against a reliable effect of CBM on cognitive bias and relapse rate in alcohol and tobacco use disorders. Besides the need for a larger body of evidence, research on the topic would benefit from a stronger adherence to the current methodological standards in randomized controlled trial design and the systematic investigation of shared protocols of CBM.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Bayesian meta-analysis; Behavior change intervention; Cognitive bias modification; Meta-analysis; Smoking; Tobacco

PMID:
30644025
DOI:
10.1007/s11065-018-9386-4

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