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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 12;16(2). pii: E204. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16020204.

Effect of Taekwondo Practice on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Author information

1
Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Said, University of La Manouba, Manouba 2010, Tunisia. abdelmottalebkadri@gmail.com.
2
Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Gafsa, Gafsa University, Gafsa 2100, Tunisia. maamer2011@hotmail.fr.
3
Postgraduate School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Genoa University, 16132 Genoa, Italy. maamer2011@hotmail.fr.
4
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), Section of Psychiatry, Genoa University, 16132 Genoa, Italy. maamer2011@hotmail.fr.
5
Postgraduate School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Genoa University, 16132 Genoa, Italy. robertobragazzi@gmail.com.
6
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), Section of Psychiatry, Genoa University, 16132 Genoa, Italy. robertobragazzi@gmail.com.
7
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. d.a.tod@ljmu.ac.uk.
8
Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia. fairouz.kyranis@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-developmental/behavioral disorders among adolescents. Sport and physical activity seem to play a major role in the development of cognition, memory, selective attention and motor reaction time, especially among adolescents with ADHD. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a one-and-a-half-year-long Taekwondo (TKD) intervention on cognitive function in adolescents with ADHD. Two cognitive instruments, namely the Stroop and the Ruff 2 and 7 tests, were administered to assess attentional inhibitory control and sustained and selective visual attention, respectively. Comparisons between the TKD and control groups at baseline did not reveal significant differences. For post-test scores, there were statistically significant differences on the Stroop color block test (large effect size or ES = 1.26 [95% confidence interval or CI 0.30⁻2.22]), the color-word interference test (large ES = 2.16 [95% CI 1.10⁻3.26]), the interference test (large ES = 1.63 [95% CI 0.62⁻2.64]) and error (large ES = -2.20 [95% CI -3.31 to -1.10]). Similar trends were reported for the Ruff 2 and 7 automated detection trials (large ES = 2.78 [95% CI 1.55⁻4.01]), controlled search trials (large ES = 2.56 [95% CI 1.38⁻3.75]) and total speed (large ES = -2.90 [95% CI -4.15 to -1.64]). In conclusion, TKD practice increased selective attention in adolescents with ADHD. Practitioners should implement martial art programs in their general plans to favorably influence attention and health in adolescents with ADHD.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD disorder; cognitive functions; martial art; taekwondo

PMID:
30642062
PMCID:
PMC6352161
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph16020204
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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