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PLoS One. 2019 Jan 14;14(1):e0210735. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210735. eCollection 2019.

Diarrheal bacterial pathogens and multi-resistant enterobacteria in the Choqueyapu River in La Paz, Bolivia.

Author information

1
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia.
2
Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
4
Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
5
Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States of America.

Abstract

Water borne diarrheal pathogens might accumulate in river water and cause contamination of drinking and irrigation water. The La Paz River basin, including the Choqueyapu River, flows through La Paz city in Bolivia where it is receiving sewage, and residues from inhabitants, hospitals, and industry. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we determined the quantity and occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella spp. and total enterobacteria in river water, downstream agricultural soil, and irrigated crops, during one year of sampling. The most abundant and frequently detected genes were gapA and eltB, indicating presence of enterobacteria and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) carrying the heat labile toxin, respectively. Pathogen levels in the samples were significantly positively associated with high water conductivity and low water temperature. In addition, a set of bacterial isolates from water, soil and crops were analyzed by PCR for presence of the genes blaCTX-M, blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM and blaOXA-48. Four isolates were found to be positive for blaCTX-M genes and whole genome sequencing identified them as E. coli and one Enterobacter cloacae. The E. coli isolates belonged to the emerging, globally disseminated, multi-resistant E. coli lineages ST648, ST410 and ST162. The results indicate not only a high potential risk of transmission of diarrheal diseases by the consumption of contaminated water and vegetables but also the possibility of antibiotic resistance transfer from the environment to the community.

PMID:
30640938
PMCID:
PMC6331111
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0210735
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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