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Infect Dis Health. 2019 Jan 10. pii: S2468-0451(18)30163-9. doi: 10.1016/j.idh.2018.12.002. [Epub ahead of print]

An outbreak of vanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a hospital with endemic vanB VRE.

Author information

1
University of Melbourne, School of Biomedical Sciences, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.
2
Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory (MDU PHL), Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
3
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia; School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Carlton, VIC 3053, Australia.
4
University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia; Infection Prevention and Surveillance Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia; NHMRC National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship (NCAS), Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Electronic address: caroline.marshall@mh.org.au.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In Australia, vanB vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has been endemic for over 20 years, but vanA VREfm isolates have rarely been reported.

METHODS:

This outbreak report describes an outbreak of vanA VREfm in the intensive care unit (ICU) and cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) wards of a Melbourne hospital in 2015-2016. After the cluster was initially identified in the ICU ward, an active screening programme was implemented. VRE isolates were typed using in silico multi-locus sequence typing. In addition, to screening, enhanced environmental cleaning, chlorhexidine gluconate body washes, and standardisation of the surgical antibiotic prophylaxis regimen were implemented to control the outbreak.

RESULTS:

There were 83 new isolates of vanA VREfm recovered from patients in the ICU (n = 31) and CTS (n = 52) wards. Screening identified 78 (94%) of cases. Three patients required treatment for clinical infection with vanA VREfm during the outbreak. The outbreak was polyclonal with 5 different multilocus sequence types carrying the vanA gene (ST17, ST80, ST203, ST252 and ST1421) detected from a subset of isolates (N = 43). The ST17 isolates all carried both the vanA and vanB gene. The intervention bundle resulted in control of the outbreak after 10 months.

CONCLUSION:

Geographically, vanA VREfm has previously been uncommon in the region and this outbreak represents a change in local epidemiology. Few VRE outbreaks have been reported in CTS patients. The infection control responses controlled the outbreak within 10-months and may help guide future management of outbreaks.

KEYWORDS:

Enterococcus faecium; Infection control; Outbreak; VRE; Vancomycin-resistant enterococci; vanA

PMID:
30638872
DOI:
10.1016/j.idh.2018.12.002
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