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Neuron. 2019 Feb 6;101(3):472-485.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.010. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Pioneer Factor NeuroD1 Rearranges Transcriptional and Epigenetic Profiles to Execute Microglia-Neuron Conversion.

Author information

1
Department of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address: tmatsuda@scb.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp.
2
Department of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
3
Department of Neuropharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.
4
Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
5
Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
6
Cell Biology Unit, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
7
Laboratory of Genome Structure and Function, Research Center for Epigenetic Disease, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
8
Genome Network Analysis Support Facility (GeNAS), RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, Kanagawa, Japan.
9
Department of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address: kin1@scb.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

Minimal sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram somatic cells into neurons. However, epigenetic remodeling during neuronal reprogramming has not been well reconciled with transcriptional regulation. Here we show that NeuroD1 achieves direct neuronal conversion from mouse microglia both in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous NeuroD1 initially occupies closed chromatin regions associated with bivalent trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and H3K27me3 marks in microglia to induce neuronal gene expression. These regions are resolved to a monovalent H3K4me3 mark at later stages of reprogramming to establish the neuronal identity. Furthermore, the transcriptional repressors Scrt1 and Meis2 are induced as NeuroD1 target genes, resulting in a decrease in the expression of microglial genes. In parallel, the microglial epigenetic signature in promoter and enhancer regions is erased. These findings reveal NeuroD1 pioneering activity accompanied by global epigenetic remodeling for two sequential events: onset of neuronal property acquisition and loss of the microglial identity during reprogramming.

KEYWORDS:

ChIP-seq; DNA methylation; RNA-seq; WGBS; direct reprogramming; epigenetics; histone modification; microglia; neuron; pioneer factor

PMID:
30638745
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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