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Taiwan J Ophthalmol. 2018 Oct-Dec;8(4):205-215. doi: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_61_18.

Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity: An update.

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Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Medical Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the most common causes of preventable blindness in children. In spite of the availability of various treatment options, and favorable results with timely intervention, many infants present to the ophthalmologists in the advanced end stage of the disease due to lack of awareness especially in the developing nations. This blinding or Stage 5 of ROP presents with total retinal detachment and has to be managed surgically. The surgical techniques for Stage 5 ROP are unique and demanding. The successful anatomical results after surgery are only seen in 20%-50% of cases. In spite of a successful anatomical result, the visual outcome may be slow and limited. The use of newer pharmacological adjuncts has shown promising results. Because of heterogeneity of presentation of the disease severity, a genetic predisposition has also been proposed. A concerted effort from the pediatricians, ophthalmologists, and healthcare workers is required to establish effective screening and treatment guidelines to prevent blindness due to ROP. Till then surgical management has to be done. Parents must be educated regarding the limited visual benefits of surgery and the need for prolonged follow-up. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the pathogenesis, clinical aspects, surgical interventions, and their outcomes and future prospects of Stage 5 ROP.


Anatomical success; complications; functional success; retrolental fibroplasia; surgical management

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The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interests of this paper.

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