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Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2018 Dec 20;9(1):1556553. doi: 10.1080/20008198.2018.1556553. eCollection 2018.

Trauma and trauma care in Europe.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
Belgian Institute for Psychotraumatology, Brussels, Belgium.
Belgian Institute for Psychotraumatology, Trauma Center Limburg, Hasselt, Belgium.
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de Tours, CHRU de Tours, Inserm, Tours, France.
Laurine Egreteau, CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, Tours, France.
Institute of Addiction Studies, Faculty of Arts and Science, ILia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
Business School, ILia State University, Tblisi, Georgia.
Department of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University Medical Hospital Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Uomo, Urbino University, Urbino, Italy.
Center for Psychotraumatology, Institute of Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
Department Clinical Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
Faculty of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland.
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Centre for Social Studies (CES) of the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
Department of Psychiatry of the Military Hospital of Coimbra, Centre of Trauma (CES) of the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Non-Governmental organization 'Ukrainian Society of Overcoming the Consequences of Traumatic Events' (USOCTE), Kyiv, Ukraine.
International Institute of Depth Psychology, Non-Governmental organization 'Ukrainian Society of Overcoming the Consequences of Traumatic Events' (USOCTE), Kyiv, Ukraine.
School of Psychology, Institute of Mental Health Sciences, Faculty of Life & Health Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK.
Research Department, Combat Stress, Leatherhead, UK & King's Centre for Military Health Research, Department of Psychological Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.


in English, Chinese, Spanish

The European countries have a long history of exposure to large-scale trauma. In the early 1990s the increasing awareness of the consequences of trauma within the mental health community led to the foundation of local societies for psychotraumatology across Europe and the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS), which celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2018. The focus of this article is to describe the current state of care for survivors of trauma in the 15 European countries where ESTSS member societies have been established. Brief descriptions on the historical burden of trauma in each country are followed by an overview of the care system for trauma survivors in the countries, the state-of-the-art of interventions, current challenges in caring for survivors and the topics that need to be most urgently addressed in the future. The reports from the different countries demonstrate how important steps towards a better provision of care for survivors of trauma have been made in Europe. Given the cultural and economic diversity of the continent, there are also differences between the European countries, for instance with regard to the use of evidence-based treatments. Strategies to overcome these differences, like the new ESTSS training curricula for care-providers across Europe, are briefly discussed.


ESTSS; Europe; Psychotraumatology; care; history; therapy; trauma; treatment; • Important steps towards a better provision of care for victims of trauma were made in the European countries.• In 2018, ESTSS celebrates its 25th anniversary.• Strategies to promote a better practice include new ESTSS curricula for professionals across Europe.

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