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Acad Emerg Med. 2019 Mar;26(3):281-285. doi: 10.1111/acem.13685. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Gender Differences in Faculty Rank Among Academic Emergency Physicians in the United States.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Columbia University, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY.
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Doximity, San Francisco, CA.



The purpose of this study was to complete a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in faculty rank among U.S. emergency physicians that reflected all academic emergency physicians.


We assembled a comprehensive list of academic emergency medicine (EM) physicians with U.S. medical school faculty appointments from linked to detailed information on physician gender, age, years since residency completion, scientific authorship, National Institutes of Health (NIH) research funding, and participation in clinical trials. To estimate gender differences in faculty rank, multivariable logistic regression models were used that adjusted for these factors.


Our study included 3,600 academic physicians (28%, or 1,016, female). Female emergency physicians were younger than their male colleagues (mean [±SD] age was 43.8 [±8.7] years for females and 47.4 [±9.9] years for males [p < 0.001]), had fewer years since residency completion (12.4 years vs. 15.6 years, p < 0.001), had fewer total and first/last author publications (4.7 vs. 8.6 total publications, p < 0.001; 4.3 vs. 7.1 first or last author publications, p < 0.001), and were less likely to be principal investigators on NIH grants (1.2% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.002) or clinical trials (1.8% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.001). In unadjusted analysis, male physicians were more likely than female physicians to hold the rank of associate or full professor versus assistant professor (13.7 percentage point difference, p < 0.001), a relationship that persisted after multivariable adjustment (5.5 percentage point difference, p = 0.001).


Female academic EM physicians are less likely to hold the rank of associate or full professor compared to male physicians even after detailed adjustment for other factors that may influence faculty rank.

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