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Int J Public Health. 2019 Mar;64(2):265-283. doi: 10.1007/s00038-018-1196-1. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Gender differences in suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

Author information

1
Health Services Research Group, IMIM-Institut Hospital del Mar d´Investigacions Mèdiques, PRBB Building. Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.
2
Department of Health and Experimental Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.
3
Department of Psychology, Jaen University, Jaén, Spain.
4
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
5
Preventive Medicine Area and Public Health, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.
6
Morales Meseguer Hospital, Murcia, Spain.
7
Department of Mental Health, Corporació Sanitaria Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Spain.
8
Outpatient Mental Health Care Network, Osakidetza-Basque Health Service, San Sebastian, Spain.
9
Mental Health and Psychiatric Care Research Unit, BioDonosti Health Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain.
10
Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS-IDISPA), University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
11
Network of Preventive Activities and Health Promotion, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
12
Department of Statistics and Operative Research, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.
13
Department of Health Psychology, Miguel Hernandez University of Elche, Elche, Spain.
14
Health Services Research Group, IMIM-Institut Hospital del Mar d´Investigacions Mèdiques, PRBB Building. Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. jalonso@imim.es.
15
Department of Health and Experimental Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. jalonso@imim.es.
16
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. jalonso@imim.es.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the association between gender and suicide attempt/death and identify gender-specific risk/protective factors in adolescents/young adults.

METHODS:

Systematic review (5 databases until January 2017). Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations, aged 12-26 years, assessing associations between gender and suicide attempts/death, or evaluating their gender risk/protective factors, were included. Random effect meta-analyses were performed.

RESULTS:

Sixty-seven studies were included. Females presented higher risk of suicide attempt (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.54-2.50), and males for suicide death (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.8-3.6). Common risk factors of suicidal behaviors for both genders are previous mental or substance abuse disorder and exposure to interpersonal violence. Female-specific risk factors for suicide attempts are eating disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, being victim of dating violence, depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems and previous abortion. Male-specific risk factors for suicide attempt are disruptive behavior/conduct problems, hopelessness, parental separation/divorce, friend's suicidal behavior, and access to means. Male-specific risk factors for suicide death are drug abuse, externalizing disorders, and access to means. For females, no risk factors for suicide death were studied.

CONCLUSIONS:

More evidence about female-specific risk/protective factors of suicide death, for adolescent/young adults, is needed.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescents; Gender; Risk factors; Suicide; Suicide attempt; Young adults

PMID:
30635683
PMCID:
PMC6439147
DOI:
10.1007/s00038-018-1196-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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