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Exp Mol Pathol. 2019 Jan 8;106:131-138. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2019.01.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion in Caco-2 cells by downregulation of lncRNA CCAT1.

Author information

1
Department of Anorectal Surgery, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining 272011, China; Affiliated Jining No.1 People's Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining Medical University, Jining 272067, China.
2
Department of Anorectal Surgery, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining 272011, China. Electronic address: yuxiqi123@sina.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a troublesome disease with high morbidity and mortality. Ginsenoside Rg3 possesses anti-cancer properties. Colon Cancer Associated Transcript 1 (CCAT1) participates in the genesis, development, invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer. In our study, we explored the effects of Rg3 on CRC cell line Caco-2 by regulating CCAT1.

METHODS:

CRC tissue was obtained from hospital and Caco-2 cells were purchased. Caco-2 cells were treated with Rg3 and/or transfected with pc- CCAT1 or pcDNA3.1. The group without Rg3 treatment was treated as control. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, cell migration and invasion were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry and Transwell chamber migration/invasion assay, respectively. The expression of CyclinD1, apoptosis related proteins (p53, Bcl-2, Bax, pro-/Cleaved-Caspase-3), migration and invasion related proteins (MMP-9 and vimentin), and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) related proteins (p/t-PI3K, p/t-AKT) were examined by western blot. The expression of CCAT1 was measured by quantitative real time RCR (qRT-PCR).

RESULTS:

Rg3 significantly decreased cell viability, migration and invasion, and promoted apoptosis. Meanwhile, the expression of Cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vimentin was downregulated. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins p53, Bax, and Cleaved-Caspase-3 were upregulated while Bcl-2 was downregulated by the treatment of Rg3 compared with control. Furthermore, CCAT1 was upregulated in CRC tissue and Rg3 negatively regulated CCAT1 expression. Transfection with pc-CCAT1 led to the opposite results as compared with transfection with pcDNA3.1 in Rg3 treated cells. In addition, Rg3 decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT.

CONCLUSION:

Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits migration and invasion, and promotes apoptosis of Caco-2 cells by suppression expression of LncRNA CCAT1.

KEYWORDS:

CCAT1; Colorectal cancer; Ginsenoside Rg3; PI3K/AKT

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