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Exp Mol Pathol. 2019 Jan 8;106:131-138. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2019.01.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion in Caco-2 cells by downregulation of lncRNA CCAT1.

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Department of Anorectal Surgery, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining 272011, China; Affiliated Jining No.1 People's Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining Medical University, Jining 272067, China.
Department of Anorectal Surgery, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining 272011, China. Electronic address:



Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a troublesome disease with high morbidity and mortality. Ginsenoside Rg3 possesses anti-cancer properties. Colon Cancer Associated Transcript 1 (CCAT1) participates in the genesis, development, invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer. In our study, we explored the effects of Rg3 on CRC cell line Caco-2 by regulating CCAT1.


CRC tissue was obtained from hospital and Caco-2 cells were purchased. Caco-2 cells were treated with Rg3 and/or transfected with pc- CCAT1 or pcDNA3.1. The group without Rg3 treatment was treated as control. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, cell migration and invasion were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry and Transwell chamber migration/invasion assay, respectively. The expression of CyclinD1, apoptosis related proteins (p53, Bcl-2, Bax, pro-/Cleaved-Caspase-3), migration and invasion related proteins (MMP-9 and vimentin), and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) related proteins (p/t-PI3K, p/t-AKT) were examined by western blot. The expression of CCAT1 was measured by quantitative real time RCR (qRT-PCR).


Rg3 significantly decreased cell viability, migration and invasion, and promoted apoptosis. Meanwhile, the expression of Cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vimentin was downregulated. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins p53, Bax, and Cleaved-Caspase-3 were upregulated while Bcl-2 was downregulated by the treatment of Rg3 compared with control. Furthermore, CCAT1 was upregulated in CRC tissue and Rg3 negatively regulated CCAT1 expression. Transfection with pc-CCAT1 led to the opposite results as compared with transfection with pcDNA3.1 in Rg3 treated cells. In addition, Rg3 decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT.


Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits migration and invasion, and promotes apoptosis of Caco-2 cells by suppression expression of LncRNA CCAT1.


CCAT1; Colorectal cancer; Ginsenoside Rg3; PI3K/AKT

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