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Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jan;98(2):e14098. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014098.

On-table extubation in neonates undergoing anoplasty: an experience of anesthetic management on the concept of fast-tracking anesthesia: A pilot study.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Chengdu Women's & Children's Central Hospital.
Department of Anesthesiology, Sichuan University West China Hospital.
Department of Anesthesiology, AVIC 363 Hospital, Chengdu, China.


Fast-track anesthesia (FTA) is difficult to achieve in neonates due to immature organ function and high rates of perioperative events. As a high-risk population, neonates require prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation, which may lead to contradictions in cases where neonatal intensive care unit resources and ventilator facilities are limited. The choice of anesthesia strategy and anesthetic can help achieve rapid postoperative rehabilitation and save hospitalization costs. The authors describe their experience with maintaining spontaneous breathing in neonates undergoing anoplasty without opioids or muscle relaxants.This retrospective chart review included neonates who underwent anoplasty in the authors' institution. Twelve neonates who underwent the procedure with atomized 5% lidocaine topical anesthesia around the glottis, combined with sevoflurane sedation and caudal anesthesia facilitating tracheal intubation without opioid and muscle relaxant comprised the FTA group. Ten neonates who underwent the intervention with routine anesthesia techniques in the same period comprised the control group (group C).The surgical success rate in the FTA group was 91.7%. There were no severe complications related to lidocaine administered around the glottis. Extubation time was significantly shorter in the FTA group than in group C (4 [2.5, 5.2] vs 81.5 [60.6, 96.8], respectively; P < .01). The duration of stay in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) was longer in group C than in the FTA group (2 [2.0, 2.6] vs 1 [0.9, 2.0], respectively; P = .006,). A statistically significant lower rate of extubation-cough was noted after endotracheal tube removal in the FTA group compared with group C (18% vs 90%, respectively; P < .001). There was no difference in the duration of anesthesia or hospitalization costs between the 2 groups. No neonates required re-intubation after extubation.On-table extubation via 5% atomized lidocaine topical anesthesia around the glottis for tracheal intubation combined with sevoflurane sedation and caudal anesthesia without opioid and muscle relaxant was feasible in neonates undergoing anoplasty. This reduced time to extubation, length of SICU stay and saved resources. A similar trend in cost savings was also found; nevertheless, more studies are needed to confirm these results.

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