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Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2019 Jan 11:1-27. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0284. [Epub ahead of print]

The Effect of 1,3-Butanediol on Cycling Time-Trial Performance.

Author information

1
a Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
2
b AUT Roche Diagnostics Laboratory, School of Science, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
3
c Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of the racemic β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) precursor, R,S-1,3-butanediol (BD), on time-trial (TT) performance and tolerability. A repeated-measures, randomised, crossover study was conducted in nine trained male cyclists (age, 26.7 ± 5.2 y; body mass, 69.6 ± 8.4 kg; height, 1.82 ± 0.09 m; BMI, 21.2 ± 1.5 kg·m-2; VO2peak, 63.9 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1·min-1; Wmax, 389.3 ± 50.4 W). Participants ingested 0.35g·kg-1 of BD or placebo 30 min before and 60 min during 85 min of steady-state exercise, which preceded a ~25 - 35 min TT (i.e. 7 kJ·kg-1). The ingestion of BD increased blood D-βHB concentration throughout exercise (0.44 - 0.79 mmol·L-1) compared to placebo (0.11 - 0.16 mmol·L-1) (all p < 0.001), which peaked one hour following the TT (1.38 ± 0.35 vs 0.34 ± 0.24 mmol·L-1) (p < 0.001). Serum glucose and blood lactate concentrations were not different between trials (all p > 0.05). BD ingestion increased oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production after 20 minutes of steady-state exercise (p = 0.002 and p = 0.032, respectively), however, no further effects on cardiorespiratory parameters were observed. Within the BD trial, moderate-to-severe gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in five participants and low levels of dizziness, nausea and euphoria were reported in two participants. However, this had no effect on TT duration (placebo, 28.5 ± 3.6 min; BD, 28.7 ± 3.2 min; p = 0.62) and average power output (placebo, 290.1 ± 53.7 watts; BD, 286.4 ± 45.9 watts; p = 0.50). These results suggest BD has no benefit for endurance performance.

KEYWORDS:

Endurance; Exogenous ketones; Ketone Supplements; Ketosis

PMID:
30632425
DOI:
10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0284

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