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NPJ Sci Learn. 2018 Mar 23;3:7. doi: 10.1038/s41539-018-0020-2. eCollection 2018.

DNA methylation signatures of educational attainment.

Author information

1Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
3Molecular Epidemiology section, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
4Department of Epidemiology, Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
5Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Educational attainment is a key behavioural measure in studies of cognitive and physical health, and socioeconomic status. We measured DNA methylation at 410,746 CpGs (N = 4152) and identified 58 CpGs associated with educational attainment at loci characterized by pleiotropic functions shared with neuronal, immune and developmental processes. Associations overlapped with those for smoking behaviour, but remained after accounting for smoking at many CpGs: Effect sizes were on average 28% smaller and genome-wide significant at 11 CpGs after adjusting for smoking and were 62% smaller in never smokers. We examined sources and biological implications of education-related methylation differences, demonstrating correlations with maternal prenatal folate, smoking and air pollution signatures, and associations with gene expression in cis, dynamic methylation in foetal brain, and correlations between blood and brain. Our findings show that the methylome of lower-educated people resembles that of smokers beyond effects of their own smoking behaviour and shows traces of various other exposures.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

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