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Front Immunol. 2018 Dec 13;9:2550. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02550. eCollection 2018.

Humanized Mice Are Instrumental to the Study of Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

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Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
Biomedical parasitology Unit, Institute Pasteur, Paris, France.
Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States.
Institute of Science, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, India.
Department of Pediatrics, Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States.
Zydus Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India.
Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, School of Engineering, GD Goenka University, Gurgaon, India.


Research using humanized mice has advanced our knowledge and understanding of human haematopoiesis, non-adaptive and adaptive immunity, autoimmunity, infectious disease, cancer biology, and regenerative medicine. Challenges posed by the human-malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum include its complex life cycle, the evolution of drug resistance against anti-malarials, poor diagnosis, and a lack of effective vaccines. Advancements in genetically engineered and immunodeficient mouse strains, have allowed for studies of the asexual blood stage, exoerythrocytic stage and the transition from liver-to-blood stage infection, in a single vertebrate host. This review discusses the process of "humanization" of various immunodeficient/transgenic strains and their contribution to translational biomedical research. Our work reviews the strategies employed to overcome the remaining-limitations of the developed human-mouse chimera(s).


FRG mice; NSG mice; TK/NOG mice; clodronate loaded liposomes; huHep; huRBCs; humanized/chimeric mice; malaria

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