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J Med Microbiol. 2019 Jan 10. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000914. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of the mechanism and impact of staphylokinase on the formation of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus polymicrobial biofilms.

Author information

1
1​Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, PR China.
2
2​Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, PR China.
3
3​School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, PR China.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus can be co-isolated in biofilm-associated infections. However, treatments have not been well established due to a lack of antibiofilm strategies. Hence, this study aims to characterize the mechanism and impact of Staphylokinase (Sak) on fungal-bacterial polymicrobial biofilms.

METHODOLOGY:

Sak generation levels were obtained via chromogenic analysis. C. albicans and S. aureus polymicrobial biofilm formation and integrity were analysed using a bright-field microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Metabolic mitochondrial activity, growth rate and adhesive capacity were also measured. Quantification real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of biofilm-related genes. Furthermore, the biofilm inhibitory potential of Sak alone or combined with antimicrobials was investigated.

RESULTS:

Sak production levels varied, ranging from 0.130 to 0.648. A strong decrease of biomass, metabolic activity andearly stage growth rate was demonstrated in the Sak-treated group. SEM showed S. aureus attached on hyphae of C. albicans in sporadic small microcolonies after Sak treatment. Moreover, the gene expression levels of HWP1, EFG1 and NRG1 were significantly altered, while no obvious difference was observed in ALS3. Finally, Sak had a notable impact on mature polymicrobial biofilms alone or when combined with vancomycin and fluconazole.

CONCLUSION:

The effect induced by Sak to C. albicans and S. aureus polymicrobial biofilms is caused by decreased biomass, biofilm integrity, metabolic activity and early stage growth rate. Alterations of gene expression levels were consistent with Sak-induced phenotypic change. Combined treatment strategies are essential for optimal activities against fungal-bacterial polymicrobial biofilms.

PMID:
30628885
DOI:
10.1099/jmm.0.000914

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